Air Force Research Lab report : effects of breathing in Aluminium nano particles

18 Jan

 

AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0022

Air Force Research Laboratory

In Vitro Toxicity of Aluminum Nanoparticles

in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

Andrew Wagner

Charles Bleckmann

E England

Air Force Institute of Technology

Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433

Krista Hess

Geo-Centers, Inc.

Dayton OH

Saber Hussain

John J. Schlager

Air Force Research Laboratory

Human Effectiveness Directorate

Applied Biotechnology Branch

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-5707

March 2001

 

FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1993 TO MARCH 2001

20060403509

Approved for public release; Air Force Research Laboratory

distribution unlimited Human Effectiveness Directorate

Biosciences and Protection Division

Applied Biotechnology Branch

Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-5707

 

 

 

 

For the complete report please refer to the link at the bottom of this article.

 

Quote from report:

 

Conclusion:

Aluminum oxide nanoparticles displayed significant toxicity after 96 and 144 hours post

exposure at high doses (100 and 250 jtg/ml). Aluminum nanoparticles also showed slight

toxicity after 24 hours at high doses (100 and 250 pgg/ml). When these cells were dosed

at lower non toxic levels (25 gig/ml) Al 50, 80,120 nm caused a significant reduction in

phagocytosis. Even at a dose as low as 5 .g/ml Al 50 nm still caused a significant

reduction. None of these nanoparticles caused the induction of nitric oxide, TNF-alpha,

or MIP-2, important components in inflammatory responses. In summary, based on

viability, aluminum nanoparticles appear to be slightly toxic to rat alveolar macrophages.

However, there was a significant reduction in phagocytic function of macrophages

 

 

Now to my own clearer understanding of the conclusions, it appears the longer the exposure, the more compounding of the effects. The effects of even low exposure as low as 5.g/mlAl 50nm still have a significant reduction in “ phagocytic “ function of the macrophages……

 

Which means that….our immune system is under duress and less effective, hence the massive increase in allergies and many other illnesses that have been correlated with the onset of spraying geoengineering, chemtrails etc.. Our rain water tests show 20.g/ml Al (gov lab?) new test soon !!

 

Phagocytosis


Several types of cells in the immune system engulf microorganisms via phagocytosis.

  • Neutrophils. Neutrophils are abundant in the blood, quickly enter tissues, and phagocytize pathogens in acute inflammation.

  • Macrophages. Macrophages are closely related to monocytes in the blood. These longer-lived cells predominate in chronic inflammation. They also release some important inflammatory paracrines. (See below.)

  • Dendritic Cells. Phagocytosis in these cells is important for the elaboration of a specific immune response rather than for directly destroying the pathogens.

  • B Lymphocytes. A small amount of phagocytosis in these cells is often necessary in order for them to develop into cells that release antibodies.

Sequence of Events

Phagocytosis begins with the neutrophil or macrophage flowing around the pathogen and engulfing it so that it winds up enclosed in a phagosome (phagocytic vesicle). But this is only the first step, because the more challenging task of destroying the microorganisms remains. Indeed, some pathogens have special, effective mechanisms for frustrating this destruction step.

The next step is the fusion of lysosomes with the phagosome. The result is called a phagolysosome. Lysosome are derived from the Golgi apparatus, much like secretion vesicles, but their contents are focused on destroying microorganisms.

Destruction of the Microbes

The following are important factors that help destroy microorganisms within a phagolysosome:

  • Oxygen Radicals. A complex of proteins called phagocyte oxidase in the membrane of a phagolysosome generates oxygen radicals in the phagosome. A single electron is taken from NADPH and added to oxygen, partially reducing it. The resulting highly reactive molecules react with proteins, lipids and other biological molecules. See the next webpage for details.

  • Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide synthase synthesizes nitric oxide, a reactive substance that reacts with superoxide to create further molecules that damage various biological molecules. (But nitric oxide is also, remarkably enough, an important regulatory molecule elsewhere. More on this later this quarter.)

  • Anti-Microbial Proteins. Lysosomes contain several proteases, including a broad spectrum enzyme,elastase, which is important or even essential for killing various bacteria. Another anti-microbial protein is lysozyme, which attacks the cell walls of certain (gram positive) bacteria.

  • Anti-Microbial Peptides. Defensins and certain other peptides attack bacterial cell membranes. Similar molecules are found throughout much of the animal kingdom.

  • Binding Proteins. Lactoferrin binds iron ions, which are necessary for growth of bacteria. Another protein binds vitamin B12.

  • Hydrogen Ion Transport. Transporters for hydrogen ions (a second role of the oxidase) acidify the phagolysosome, which kills various microorganisms and is important for the action of the proteases described above.

Release of Regulatory Molecules

In addition to destroying the microorganism, phagocytes also release molecules that diffuse to other cells and help coordinate the overall response to an infection.

Regulatory molecules that regulate an immune response are called cytokines. Most are small proteins and are mainly released by white blood cells and their relatives, such as macrophages.

Cytokines for the most part act as paracrines, which are regulatory molecules that are released by one cell and diffuse locally to neighboring cells. (Locally in this context means over millimeters or perhaps a few centimeters). But occasionally cytokines act more widely. For example, certain cytokines diffuse from a site of infection and cause fever.

The release of cytokines by macrophages is especially important. Two important examples are TNF-alpha and IL-1. These help coordinate an immune response. But they are especially important as potent imflammatory paracrines. Also, you are going to find that TNF-alpha can be released in serious infections in such quantity that it is life-threatening or even fatal.

Identification of Pathogen

We will go into this topic in more detail later. But here are a few points for now. Neutrophils and macrophages have some ability on their own to recognize microorganisms and begin phagocytosis. We will use the term innate receptors for the molecules on such cells that available immediately to bind foreign molecules. These can act as soon as a microbe enters the body. They are naturally found on the surface of phagocytes and do not require a specific immune response to be made. Innate receptors are possible because microorganisms have various molecules on their surfaces that much different than those found in a human.

But phagocytosis is far more effective if microorganisms are labelled by special molecules that bind to their surface. Any molecule that binds to a microorganism and thereby speeds phagocytosis is called an opsonin. Most important here are antibodies (such as IgG), which specifically identify molecules at the surface of specific microorganisms. With this attached to the surface of the microorganisms, phagocytosis is much more effective and rapid.

Refs:

http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA445568

http://courses.washington.edu/conj/bloodcells/phagocytosis.htm

 

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5 Responses to “Air Force Research Lab report : effects of breathing in Aluminium nano particles”

  1. Vee StJohn-Byles (@Gentlespir1t) January 18, 2013 at 3:33 am #

    Hi Max…also if and when a person is suffering from n existing auti immune condition or has a weakened immune system already, (as is my case) then these particles are going to wreak even more havoc. People need to read up on just how the immune system needs to be strong, and what helps strengthen a weakened immune system. The introduction also of the Codex Alimentarius and the timing is quite interesting, as it means we the public will be obtaining inferior quality vitamins and supplements and will suffer nutrient deficiency. On top of this, as the soil, and quality of organic and other grown or farmed foods is not vital (ie. full of healthy and vitamins) but are depleted due to chemicals being let loose – this and inadequate money to buy decent foodstuffs, or the ability to grow your own in good clean soil from clean and not GMO seeds is a further problem.

    Great website. Good luck and much love.

  2. love1salluneed January 18, 2013 at 4:37 pm #

    Thank you Max/ Appreciate all you do. Yup you kn ow me from other ‘places’……….take care, stay warm and peace to you also my friend :0)

  3. reputation management May 3, 2013 at 3:03 am #

    At this moment I am going away to do my breakfast, once having my breakfast coming over
    again to read further news.

  4. Lissakrhumanelife December 22, 2014 at 9:15 pm #

    Reblogged this on Lissa's Humane Life.

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